Preparing for unexpected events is an important part of keeping children safe and healthy throughout the year. Events such as the spread of a serious infection, an explosion, an earthquake, or a weather event such as a hurricane, could cause health problems for many people and especially children.
1 in 4 people in the United States are children and they have special needs during and after emergencies. Although young children are often more affected than adults during disasters, there are concerns about children of all ages during emergencies due to the following:
• Children may not be able to follow instructions or make decisions to stay out of danger during a disaster.
• The body of children consumes energy faster than that of adults and that is why children need food and water more frequently. This means that they will absorb poison or dangerous chemicals faster than adults.
• Children have thinner skin and breathe faster than adults, which also makes it more likely that harmful substances enter the body through the skin or breathing.
• Children are smaller than adults, but proportionally to their size, they have more skin compared to adults. This means that they are more likely to show damage from certain chemicals, or from very hot or very cold temperatures.
• Children are more likely to put their hands in their mouths and spend more time outdoors and on the ground, which makes it easier for them to come into contact with hazards in the environment.
• Children may not be able to explain how they are feeling, which can make it harder to identify a medical problem and treat it quickly.
• Children have more contact with other people and their immune system is less developed to fight infections. This means that they are more likely to get diseases that are transmitted from person to person.
Advances in the consideration of children’s needs during emergencies
Although children have a greater chance of preventing damage during an emergency, special attention is required to ensure that they are not ignored when emergency plans are developed or implemented. Caring for children during emergency procedures, such as evacuation, decontamination, and shelter, requires planning and taking action before an emergency occurs. For example, in an emergency, hospitals may have to care for a large number of children. If it is not planned with enough time, hospitals may not have adequate equipment and supplies to care for a larger number of young patients than usual.
Agencies in local communities and at the state and national levels are working to ensure that children are protected during disasters by taking measures such as the following:
• create new or stronger connections between the public health sector, children’s health care providers, children’s hospitals, schools, and education boards;
• develop instructions on how to keep children healthy during an emergency and how to treat those who are sick or those with special health care needs;
• Share information and ideas about the inclusion of children’s needs in emergency plans and how to implement them during the emergency; Y
• Prepare for the next event by reviewing what was learned from previous events and making improvements.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) created a Child Preparedness Unit (CPU) in 2012 to focus on the protection of children during disease outbreaks and other emergencies. The CPU works with partners to include the needs of children at all stages of an emergency. More recently, members of the CPU provided personnel to the CDC Emergency Operations Center for the response to the Zika virus outbreak to serve as experts in children’s health. For the response to the 2017 hurricane season, the CPU worked closely with the CDC official in charge of vulnerable populations in order to establish the first Workforce in Risk Moments for a response.
Maternal and neonatal health
In most countries, infant mortality has declined in recent decades. However, maternal and neonatal mortality generally has not undergone changes.
Infant mortality encompasses almost 40 percent of the estimated 9.7 million deaths of children under five and almost 60 percent of deaths during the neonatal period. This means that newborns are 500 times more likely to die during the first day of life than during their first month. The highest absolute number of newborn deaths occurs in South Asia – India contributes a quarter of the world total – but the highest national rates of neonatal mortality occur in sub-Saharan Africa.
A common factor in these deaths is the health of the mother. Each year, more than half a million women die annually due to complications of pregnancy and childbirth. Babies whose mothers have died during childbirth have a much greater chance of dying in their first year than those whose mothers remain alive. 99% of cases of maternal and newborn mortality occur in the developing world, where more than 50% of women still give birth without the assistance of trained health workers. It is a revealing example of inequality in terms of access to good quality health care.
80% of maternal deaths are due to direct obstetric causes, such as hemorrhages, infections, hypertension problems during pregnancy and complications of abortions performed in unsanitary conditions. For every woman who dies due to complications in childbirth, another 20 suffer injuries, infections or disabilities that are ignored or not treated, and are usually the cause of chronic pain, or social and economic exclusion for life.
In general, these are complications that cannot be foreseen or prevented. All pregnant women are at risk of complications during pregnancy, delivery and postpartum. However, women and families can learn to avoid unplanned pregnancies, and if women become pregnant, they can learn about the importance of prenatal care, symptoms and danger signs, planning consultations emergency medical staff and the choice of safe methods of delivery. When problems arise but patients are referred to the appropriate health services, complications can be treated in health facilities that have adequate equipment, supplies, and medicines and sufficiently trained health personnel.
Improving the health and nutrition of future mothers and providing quality reproductive Social Security is essential to address many of the underlying causes of infant mortality.
Because almost half of all newborn deaths occur within 24 hours after delivery, since almost 75% of them occur in the first week after delivery, strategies should focus on the comprehensive and continued provision of health care. This is an approach that includes increasing access to prenatal care during pregnancy, improving the management of normal deliveries by trained midwives, access to emergency obstetric and neonatal care if necessary, and Timely attention of mother and newborn. In addition to strengthening the links between the various levels of care in health facilities,
The myth should not be accepted that the only way to pay attention to sick newborns is to treat them in high-cost neonatal health care hospital units. There is evidence that it is possible to greatly reduce the mortality and morbidity of newborns by implementing simple and low-cost interventions in health facilities and homes during birth and in the days and weeks after delivery when the mother and son are most threatened. These fundamental practices include drying the newborn and taking care not to cool down, starting to breastfeed as soon as possible immediately after delivery and supporting the mother so that she can exclusively breastfeed her child,
For the most part, these are health care practices that families can do on their own, or with the help of a community health worker. This could participate in the delivery taking care of the newborn, or visit the mother and the child in the first 24 hours after delivery, in addition to one or two more times during the first week. That is a fundamental aspect because more than 50% of newborn deaths occur at home since in many countries the long-term goal of preparing a sufficient number of midwives will not become a reality for many years. trained to attend births.
Over the past decade, UNICEF has adopted a holistic, rights-based approach to maternal health. With that perspective, UNICEF works to enhance the role of women, prevent the adolescent marriage, promote girls’ education, eliminate female genital mutilation/excision and support the development of adolescent life skills. UNICEF supports the improvement of prenatal health care (through vaccination against tetanus, the distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets, intermittent preventive treatment of the newborn and nutrition); Prevention of HIV transmission from mother to child, and increased women’s access to HIV treatments. In line with the needs of each country, UNICEF also supports the preparation of trained midwives,
Recent research released by Lancet Series (in English) on the survival of children (2003), the survival of newborns (2005) and the survival of mothers (2006), as well as on reproductive health (2006), indicate that through All interventions of a magnitude in accordance with the severity of the problem can reduce maternal and newborn mortality rates substantially. In some cases, and especially when it comes to saving the lives of mothers, such interventions must be implemented in basic or integral emergency obstetric care facilities. Many others, on the other hand, and especially when they are aimed at the care of newborns, although not excluding mothers, may be left in charge of community health workers or itinerant nurses.
Global alliances and initiatives
In collaboration with governments and their partners, UNICEF can assist in the development and development of home-based maternal and newborn care programs that are based on successful work models of community health workers or women’s groups of communities, while health facilities and links between communities and hospitals providing emergency care are strengthened. At the national level, the realization of these objectives may require different approaches whose characteristics will depend on the needs and realities of each country.
What are the medical consequences of tobacco use?
Smoking kills more than 440,000 American citizens every year, more than the combined total of alcohol deaths, illegal drug use, homicides, suicides, car accidents, and AIDS. Between 1964 and 2004, more than 12 million Americans died prematurely from smoking and it is almost certain that, of current smokers in the United States, another 25 million will die of smoking-related illnesses.
The habit of smoking harms almost all the organs of the body. It has been definitely linked to cataracts and pneumonia (pneumonia) and causes a third of the deaths related to any type of cancer. In general, the death rate from cancer doubles in smokers and becomes up to four times more in heavy smokers. Lung cancer tops the list of types of cancer caused by tobacco. Cigarette use is associated with 90 percent of all cases of lung cancer, cancer that causes the most deaths among both men and women. Smoking is also associated with cancer of the mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, cervix, kidneys, urethra, bladder, and acute myeloid leukemia.
In addition to cancer, the use of cigarettes causes lung diseases such as chronic bronchitis and emphysema and it is also known to make asthma symptoms worse in adults and children. More than 90 percent of all deaths from chronic pulmonary obstruction diseases are attributable to smoking. It has been well documented that smoking substantially increases the risk of heart disease, including heart and heart attacks, Prism. Cigarette smoking also causes coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the United States; Cigarette smokers are two to four times more likely to develop coronary heart disease compared to people who do not smoke.
Also, it can be extremely toxic to be exposed to high doses of nicotine such as those found in some insecticide sprays, which can cause vomiting, tremor, seizures, and death. In fact, a drop of pure nicotine can kill a person. Nicotine poisonings resulting from accidental ingestion of insecticides by adults or ingestion of tobacco products by children and pets have been reported. Death usually occurs within a few minutes due to respiratory failure caused by paralysis.
Although we often think that medical consequences are the result of direct use of tobacco products, passive inhalation of cigarette smoke also increases the risk of many diseases. Environmental tobacco smoke is the largest source of indoor air pollutants. It is estimated that passive inhalation of cigarette smoke causes approximately 3,000 deaths from lung cancer among people who do not smoke and contributes to more than 35,000 deaths related to cardiovascular disease. Being exposed to tobacco smoke in the home is also a risk factor that contributes to new and more severe cases of childhood asthma. In addition, cigarettes that fall or are thrown away are the main cause of fatalities from residential fires, causing more than 1,000 deaths each year.
What effects does it produce?
Nicotine is a stimulating substance, but most smokers believe that smoking relaxes them, but in reality, it is because it calms the anxiety caused by the lack of nicotine in the body (a symptom of withdrawal syndrome).
From the moment an individual becomes a habitual smoker, the toxic components of tobacco smoke begin slow but indefatigable labor.
A large number of diseases, in various systems of our body, are caused or favored by smoking.
At first, these “small” alarm signals appear to which the smoker becomes accustomed even though they progressively diminish his quality of life (tiredness, cough, expectorations, etc. They are the beginning of some negative effects of which these can be highlighted.
Bone health: tips to keep bones healthy
Muscles fulfill many functions in the body: they constitute the structure, protect the organs, hold the muscles and store calcium. While it is important to develop strong and healthy bones during childhood and adolescence, in adulthood you can also take measures to protect bone health.
Why is bone health important?
Bones change continuously: the body generates new bone tissue, and existing bone tissue wears out. When one is young, the body produces new bone tissue faster than existing bone tissue wears out, and bone density increases. Most people reach their maximum bone density around 30 years. After that, bone remodeling continues, but slightly more bone density is lost than is gained.
The likelihood of osteoporosis, a condition that causes bones to weaken and become fragile, depends on the amount of bone density you reach by the time you turn 30 and how quickly you lose it. The higher the maximum bone density you acquire, the more bone tissue you will have “in reserve” and the lower the chance of getting osteoporosis when you get older.
What affects bone health?
Several factors can affect bone health. For example:
• The amount of calcium in your diet. A diet low in calcium contributes to decreased bone density, early decalcification and an increased risk of fractures.
• Physical activity. Compared to the most active people, sedentary people are more likely to have osteoporosis.
• Tobacco and alcohol consumption. Research suggests that tobacco use weakens bones. Also, drinking more than one alcoholic drink a day for women or two alcoholic drinks a day for men can increase the risk of osteoporosis.
• Sex You have a higher risk of osteoporosis if you are a woman because women have less bone tissue than men.
• Size. You are at risk if you are extremely thin (with a body mass index of 19 or less) or have a small build, since you may have less bone mass to store as you get older.
• Age. Your bones become thinner and weaker as you get older.
• Race and family history. You have a higher risk of osteoporosis if you are white or of Asian descent. In addition, having a father or brother with osteoporosis puts you at greater risk, especially if you also have a family history of fractures.
• Hormonal levels High levels of thyroid hormone can cause osteoporosis. In women, the decrease in bone mass increases significantly during menopause due to the decrease in estrogen levels. The prolonged absence of menstruation (amenorrhea) before menopause also increases the risk of osteoporosis. In men, low testosterone levels can cause decreased bone mass.
• Eating disorders and other conditions. People with anorexia or bulimia are at risk of osteoporosis. In addition, stomach surgery (gastrectomy), weight loss surgery and conditions such as Crohn’s disease, celiac disease and Cushing’s disease can affect the body’s ability to absorb calcium.
• Certain medications Prolonged use of corticosteroid medications, such as prednisone, cortisone, prednisolone, and dexamethasone, is harmful to the bones. Other medications that could increase the risk of osteoporosis are aromatase inhibitors to treat breast cancer, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, methotrexate, some anticonvulsant medications such as phenytoin (Dilantin) and phenobarbital, and inhibitors of the proton pump.
What can I do to keep my bones healthy?
You can take some simple steps to avoid or delay bone loss. For example:
• Include a lot of calcium in your diet. Adults between the ages of 19 and 50 and men between the ages of 51 and 70 have a recommended dietary value of 1,000 milligrams (mg) of calcium per day. The recommendation increases to 1,200 mg per day for women over 50 and for men over 70.
Some good sources of calcium are dairy products, almonds, broccoli, kale, canned salmon with bones, sardines and soy products, such as tofu. If you find it difficult to get enough calcium from your diet, ask your doctor about supplements.
• Pay attention to vitamin D. The body needs vitamin D to absorb calcium. For adults between 19 and 70 years and the recommended daily amount of vitamin D is 600 international units (IU). The recommendation increases to 800 IU for adults over 71 years.
Among the good sources of vitamin D are fatty fish, such as salmon, trout, whitefish, and tuna. Also, mushrooms, eggs and fortified foods, such as milk and cereals, are good sources of vitamin D. Sunlight also contributes to the production of vitamin D in the body. If you are worried about getting enough vitamin D, ask your doctor about supplements.
• Incorporate physical activity into your daily routine. Activities that support weight, such as walking, jogging and climbing stairs, can help you strengthen your bones and slow bone loss.
• Avoid substance abuse. Do not smoke. If you are a woman, try not to drink more than one alcoholic beverage per day. If you are male, try not to drink more than two alcoholic beverages per day.
Ask your doctor for help If you have concerns about your bone health or the risk factors you have for osteoporosis, such as a recent bone fracture, consult your doctor. I could recommend bone densitometry. The results will help the doctor calculate your bone density and determine the rate of decrease in bone mass. By evaluating this information and your risk factors, the doctor can assess whether you can be a candidate for medications to help delay the decrease in
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